The Complete Guide to Email Marketing Terms and Definitions

Feeling lost in the jungle of email marketing lingo? Not sure your sends from your opens? This is the complete encyclopedic guide to tame the terminology beast once and for all! We’ll explore everything from authentication acronyms to lifecycle campaign strategies and beyond. You’ll go from confused to fluent faster than you can say “email marketing terminology” three times fast. So buckle up for a wild terminology safari – our adventure begins now!


Welcome to the wild and wonderful world of email marketing! As both an art and a science, effective email marketing relies on mastering key terminology and concepts. Whether you’re a seasoned email pro or just getting your feet wet, this guide will ensure you have the knowledge to navigate any email marketing discussion with confidence.

Let’s start with the basics – why is it so important to understand email marketing lingo in the first place? Simply put, terminology matters. The terms we use shape how we approach and execute email campaigns. A deep understanding of email marketing vocabulary allows you to:

  • Communicate effectively with team members, clients, and partners
  • Accurately interpret email analytics and campaign reports
  • Troubleshoot deliverability or security issues
  • Identify opportunities for optimization and innovation
  • Follow industry best practices and comply with regulations
  • And much more!

When everyone is on the same page terminology-wise, email marketing programs thrive.

Of course, with new technologies and strategies emerging all the time, staying on top of the lexicon can feel like a full-time job. Not to worry! In this guide, we’ll cover all the email marketing terms and acronyms you truly need to know.

By the end of this article, you’ll be fluent in topics like:

  • Email delivery fundamentals: The behind-the-scenes infrastructure that makes email marketing possible. Terms like IP addresses, ISPs, spamblocking, and more.
  • Design and content creation: Crafting effective emails starts with understanding key elements like subject lines, calls-to-action, and responsible image use.
  • Campaign types and objectives: From one-off blasts to sophisticated behavioral campaigns, we’ll explore popular email campaign strategies.
  • Metrics and analytics: The essential KPIs and terminology you need to analyze campaign performance and results. Open rates, click-through rates, conversions, and beyond.
  • Regulations and compliance: Don’t run afoul of policies like CAN-SPAM and GDPR. We’ll cover what you need to know.
  • List growth tactics: Want to build a top-notch subscriber list? Brush up on terms like double opt-in, lead magnets, and signup forms.
  • Reporting and analytics: Learn the lingo used by popular email analytics platforms to interpret campaign data and reports.
  • Deliverability essentials: Optimize your campaigns by mastering key deliverability terminology and factors like sender reputation, engagement, and complaint rates.

And much more! By exploring each of these categories in plain English, you’ll gain the knowledge to navigate any email marketing discussion with ease. No stone will be left unturned when it comes to the essentials.

However, this guide won’t just cover familiar ground. We’ll also spotlight advanced email marketing strategies and emerging terminology you need to know:

  • Personalization – Using dynamic content and segmentation to hyper-target campaigns
  • Lifecycle marketing – Customizing messaging based on subscriber lifecycle stage
  • Triggered campaigns – Automating emails based on subscriber actions
  • A/B and multivariate testing – Optimizing campaigns through rigorous testing
  • Predictive analytics – Using AI and machine learning to model outcomes

And more. Understanding these sophisticated tactics will help you get ahead of the curve and remain on the cutting edge.

By the end of this all-encompassing guide, your email marketing vocabulary will be unmatched. You’ll be able to converse fluently with experts, interpret data accurately, and make informed strategic decisions. Maybe you’ll even be the one defining new terminology before long!

Sound exciting? Let’s get started exploring the A to Z of professional email marketing lingo. Just don’t forget to grab a refreshingly humorous snack first – absorbing all this information can make one famished. Here we go!

Essential Email Marketing Terms

Now that we’ve covered why mastering key terminology is so invaluable, let’s dive right into the terms themselves! This comprehensive section will explore must-know lingo across all stages of the email marketing process – from foundational delivery concepts to strategic campaign optimization. Grab some popcorn and let’s get rolling.

Email Delivery and Infrastructure

Before an email even reaches your subscribers’ inboxes, it must pass through a complex behind-the-scenes infrastructure system. Familiarizing yourself with the following delivery terms is essential:


A “bounce” occurs when an email is undeliverable to a recipient’s inbox and gets returned to the sender. There are two main types:

  • Hard bounces: Permanent delivery failures due to issues like invalid email addresses.
  • Soft bounces: Temporary delivery failures, often due to a full inbox or unavailable server.

Monitoring your overall bounce rate lets you identify list hygiene issues and troubleshoot deliverability problems. Try to keep it below 5% if possible.


While bounces refer to individual email addresses, “blocks” happen at the domain or IP address level. Certain IPs may be blocked entirely from sending to major ISPs due to factors like past spam complaints. This severely damages deliverability and should be avoided at all costs.

Email clients

Email “clients” or “apps” refer to the software programs and interfaces subscribers use to receive emails, like Gmail, Outlook, Apple Mail, etc. Understanding how each client displays and renders emails is key to design and deliverability.

Email service providers (ESPs)

ESPs are third-party services that handle hosting, sending, and tracking your email campaigns. Leading options include MailChimp, Constant Contact, SendGrid, and more. Choosing the right ESP is a foundational email marketing decision.

IP addresses

Every device on the Internet is assigned a unique IP or “Internet Protocol” address. In email marketing, dedicated IP addresses are often used to brand campaigns and improve deliverability. Shared IPs spread resources across multiple senders.

Open rates

Open rate shows the percentage of subscribers who opened your email. It’s a key metric, though limited, since “opens” can be misleading. Focusing on clicks and conversions is ideal.


Preheaders are short text summaries visible in inboxes before opening. They provide context for subscribers and can improve open rates when well-written.


“Rendering” refers to how an email displays across different devices, email clients, and screen sizes. Test rendering before sending to ensure proper visibility.


Email authentication (e.g. SPF, DKIM) and sender reputation help confirm an email’s validity, which improves deliverability and inbox placement. Monitor your sender score.


“Servers” send and receive emails. They can be local, third-party, dedicated, shared, etc. Server capacity and configurations impact everything from deliverability to cost.

Spam filters

Automatic spam filters detect and divert unwanted email to the spam folder based on content, attachments, authentication, sender reputation, and more. Optimizing emails to bypass filters is crucial.

Email Design and Content

Crafting appealing emails requires an eye for design and mastery of key copywriting elements:

ALT text

ALT text provides descriptive captions for images in HTML emails, improving accessibility and engagement if images are blocked.

Animated GIFs

Small animated GIFs can be embedded in emails to capture attention, though overuse comes across as spammy. Use judiciously and ensure proper rendering.

Call-to-action (CTA)

A CTA or “call to action” urges subscribers to take a desired action like visiting a page, making a purchase, signing up for a webinar, etc. CTAs are critical for driving conversions.

Dynamic content

Dynamic content tailors emails to each recipient by integrating personalized data like names, locations, purchase history, etc. Dynamic content improves engagement and conversion rates.

HTML vs. plain text

HTML formatting enables rich email design with branding and multimedia. Plain text offers a simple alternative but lacks customization options. Include both for maximum compatibility.


Relevant, high-quality images can capture attention and communicate key messages. Ensure proper hosting and always include ALT text for accessibility.

Mobile responsiveness

Emails should resize and orient properly on mobile devices. Use responsive design and test on mobile to provide the best experience.


Personalization integrates customized data like names, preferences, behaviors, etc. to make content hyper-relevant for each subscriber and improve engagement.

Subject lines

The subject line functions as an email’s title or headline. Subject lines are key for inboxing and driving opens through compelling previews of content.

Email Campaigns and Objectives

Understanding various types of email campaigns and their purposes will make you a more strategic marketer:

A/B testing

A/B testing splits your list and sends slightly different versions of an email to identify the optimal variation based on open rates, clicks, conversions, etc.


A broadcast email sends the same static content to your entire list in a one-off blast. Often used for announcements, newsletters, promotions, etc.

Cold email

Cold email outreach targets prospective customers with relevant value to establish connections and drive conversions from new audiences. Personalization and follow-ups are key.


A conversion represents any desired goal subscribers complete after receiving your email, such as downloading a resource, making a purchase, registering for a webinar, etc.

Drip campaigns

Drip campaigns automatically send a series of emails over time when subscribers take (or don’t take) certain actions. Useful for onboarding, engagement, re-activation, and more.

Lead nurturing

Lead nurturing uses timely, relevant content to develop deeper relationships with prospects who aren’t sales ready yet and move them down the funnel.

List segmentation

Segmentation divides your list into groups based on attributes like demographics, interests, behaviors, purchase history etc. You can then target each segment with tailored messaging.

Marketing automation

Automation utilizes triggers and predefined rules to send personalized messages and content automatically when subscribers meet certain criteria.


Regular newsletters provide subscribers with updates, articles, promotions, etc. on a set schedule through subscription.

Welcome series

Welcome series introduce new subscribers to your brand through a series of helpful onboarding emails after signup. They build engagement and loyalty.

Email Metrics and Optimization

Constant optimization requires digging into key email metrics and terminology:

Click-through rate (CTR)

CTR shows the percentage of email recipients who clicked on one or more links. Higher CTRs indicate engaging content.

Conversion rate

The percentage of email recipients who complete your desired on-site action after clicking from the email. The #1 metric for optimization.

Engagement metrics

Engagement metrics include open rate, CTR, click-to-open rate, conversion rate, shares, survey responses, and more. Monitor for trends.

Open analytics

Open analytics provide data on both unique opens and total opens. Unique opens counts each subscriber only once regardless of multiple opens.

Read length

Read length shows how long subscribers kept your email open. Longer read lengths imply greater engagement.

Unsubscribe rate

The percentage of subscribers who click unsubscribe on each campaign. Monitor for high rates that may signal content/relevancy issues, over-sending, etc.

Email Regulations and Compliance

Avoid hefty fines and damaged reputation by learning key policies and regulations:


The Controlling the Assault of Non-Solicited Pornography And Marketing Act establishes requirements for commercial emails in the United States.


Canada’s Anti-Spam Legislation (CASL) sets standards for commercial email sent within, to, or from Canada.


The European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation governs how brands manage and use the personal data of EU citizens.

Privacy policies

Privacy policies legally explain how you handle website and email data. All marketers must publish one prominently online.

List Growth and Maintenance

Building a top-notch list starts with the fundamentals:

Double opt-in vs single opt-in

Double opt-in requires new subscribers confirm their signups to reduce list bloat from fake emails. Single opt-in adds anyone who enters an email.

List hygiene

Regular list maintenance like pruning inactives, updating details, and removing bounces keeps your list healthy and maximizes deliverability.

Opt-ins and opt-outs

Opt-ins proactively sign up to receive emails. Opt-outs request removal from your list, which you must honor immediately per CAN-SPAM compliance.

Signup forms

Embedded or popup signup forms allow website visitors to subscribe by entering their email address. Offering lead magnets incentivizes signups.

Reporting and Analytics

Better data drives better decisions. These terms help make sense of analytics:

Campaign reports

Email platforms generate reports summarizing key campaign performance data like sends, bounces, opens, clicks, conversions, unsubs, complaints, etc.

Email analytics platforms

Robust analytics solutions like MailChimp, Omnisend, and Klaviyo track customer engagement across channels to provide holistic intelligence.

Unique clicks/opens

Total clicks and opens can be inflated by repeat actions from some subscribers. Unique clicks/opens count each recipient only once for more precise insight.

Phew! As you can see, mastering email marketing involves learning a lot of terminology. But not to worry – you can always refer back to this handy guide anytime. The more emails you send, the more second nature these terms will become.

Now that we’ve covered the essentials, let’s explore some advanced strategies and concepts in the next sections. The fun has just begun!

Email Deliverability Terms

Now that we’ve explored the essentials, it’s time to level up our knowledge with some more advanced concepts. And nothing is more critical to email marketing success than understanding deliverability.

Let’s start with the basics – what exactly is email deliverability?

Deliverability refers to the percentage of emails sent that successfully reach subscriber inboxes.

The higher your deliverability, the more people open, read, and engage with your messages. High deliverability leads directly to better campaign performance.

On the other hand, poor deliverability due to issues like spam filters, blacklisting, etc. severely limits email visibility. And since the average inbox placement rate is only about 75%, there’s lots of room for improvement.

Mastering key deliverability concepts gives you the power to maximize inbox placement for every campaign.

Below are some of the most important deliverability terms and factors every marketer should know:

Authentication methods

To verify legitimate sending domains and avoid impersonation tactics, major ESPs use email authentication protocols like:

  • SPF – Sender Policy Framework associates domains with authorized sending servers
  • DKIM – DomainKeys Identified Mail adds encrypted signature identifying senders
  • DMARC – Domain-based Message Authentication, Reporting and Conformance builds on SPF and DKIM to block unauthorized mail

Having proper authentication strengthens your sender reputation and improves inboxing.


ISPs maintain blacklists of known spam domains and IPs. If your sending infrastructure lands on a blacklist, emails will likely be blocked altogether.

Blacklist services like Spamhaus, Spamcop and Barracuda Central should be monitored regularly to ensure you’re not penalized unfairly.

Bounce management

Bouncebacks indicate list maintenance issues like invalid emails, changed addresses, full inboxes, etc. High bounce rates above 5% damage your sender reputation.

Prune bounced emails regularly and double check new subscriber addresses to keep bounce rates low.

IP reputation

All sending IPs develop a reputation score (1-100) based on factors like authentication, engagement, and spam complaints. Aim for an IP reputation above 90.

Tools like SendGrid’s Reputation Monitoring analyze your main email IP addresses to optimize standing.

ISP relationships

Since major ISPs like Gmail control mailbox delivery, nurturing positive relationships with them through high engagement and low complaints is ideal.

Developing an ISP relationship strategy tailored to major players you reach can improve inbox placement.

Mailing frequency

Sending too infrequently fails to nurture engagement. But conversely, overmailing annoys subscribers and leads to complaints. Find your optimal send frequency.

Test different mailing frequencies by segment and monitor metrics like abuse reports, unsubscribes, bounces etc. to guide your strategy.

Sender reputation

In addition to IP reputation, services like Return Path’s Sender Score evaluate your domain’s authority and integrity as a sender.

Sender reputation relies heavily on list quality, engagement metrics, and handled complaints. Monitor it continuously.

Spam complaints

Recipient spam complaints cause major damage to deliverability by harming sender reputation. Keeping complaint rates under 0.1% per ISP is critical.

Reduce complaints by fine-tuning content for the spam trigger words filters key on and optimizing subscriber relevance through segmentation.

Those are some of the most crucial factors and terminology to understand for maximizing email deliverability. Here are some additional key concepts:

  • Engagement metrics like open, clickthrough, and conversion rates signal an active, interested audience to ISPs. Keep them high.
  • List quality factors like low inactivity, minimal incorrect addresses, engaged segments etc. also boost reputation.
  • Complaint handling procedures need to be quick and effective to satisfy ISPs.

And more! Email deliverability is a complex, evolving art. But mastering both general strategies and specific terminology puts success directly within your reach.

With a firm grasp on deliverability concepts, you can confidently diagnose issues, optimize your program, and ultimately achieve inbox placement and engagement rates that maximize ROI.

So be sure to brush up on these critical terms regularly. Deliverability is the key to unlocking email marketing’s full potential!

Advanced Email Marketing Strategies

By now, you should feel right at home discussing essential email fundamentals. But marketing pros can’t rest on their laurels – we also need to stay ahead of the curve with the latest advanced strategies.

This section will level up your knowledge even further by exploring sophisticated email marketing techniques like:

  • Personalization
  • Segmentation
  • Lifecycle campaigns
  • Triggered emails
  • Integrations
  • Testing & optimization

Mastering these advanced concepts is key for driving subscriber engagement, conversions, and revenue in a crowded inbox. Let’s dive in!


Email personalization integrates customized data like names, locations, purchase history etc. to hyper-target content for each subscriber’s unique interests and needs.

Sophisticated personalization requires a robust email platform, but basic tactics like using first names in subject lines can be done by anyone.

Benefits include:

  • Higher open & clickthrough rates – Personally relevant content piques subscriber curiosity
  • Increased conversions – Tailored CTAs resonate better with subscriber needs
  • Improved loyalty & retention – Subscribers feel recognized and valued

Personalization should feel natural and add value, not seem gimmicky. Gather data explicitly where possible, and infer preferences cautiously.

Best practices include:

  • Name personalization – Address subscribers by first name for a human touch
  • Behavioral segmentation – Send content based on past interactions and preferences
  • Dynamic content – Swap in targeted product recommendations, offers, etc.
  • Event-triggered messages – Send content based on purchases, service milestones, etc.
  • Location-based content – Tailor imagery, deals, and calls to action based on geography

The more you integrate thoughtful personalization, the more each email will feel like a 1:1 conversation.


List segmentation entails dividing subscribers into distinct groups based on attributes like:

  • Demographic data
  • Purchase history
  • On-site behaviors
  • Engagement metrics
  • Purchase frequency
  • Content preferences
  • And more

Segmenting provides two major advantages:

  • Granular targeting – Send highly relevant content tailored to each group
  • Testing at scale – Compare how different segments respond to messages

Best practices for savvy segmentation include:

  • Limit segment size – Segments with under 2,000 subscribers are ideal
  • Send timed content – Trigger emails based on time since last purchase, onboarding stage etc.
  • Test new segments constantly – See which resonate best with specific content types
  • Maximize segment diversity – Divide your list into unique angles like industry, lead stage, past campaign engagement etc.
  • Name segments meaningfully – Helps organize and deploy campaigns efficiently

Get creative with segmentation and you can achieve entirely new levels of targeting precision and subscriber relevance.

Lifecycle campaigns

Lifecycle campaigns personalize messaging based on where each subscriber is within your sales funnel by segmenting them into lifecycle stages, which typically include:

  • Awareness – Just discovering your brand
  • Interest – Engaged and wanting to learn more
  • Consideration – Evaluating solutions and needing guidance
  • Decision – Ready to make a purchase
  • Loyalty – Current satisfied customer

You then create tailored messaging for each stage and automate campaigns to nurture subscribers appropriately.

For example:

  • Awareness – Send intro emails explaining key product benefits
  • Interest – Share evaluation guides, demo offers, content etc.
  • Consideration – Provide case studies, testimonials, buying guides etc.
  • Decision – Offer trials, discounts, limited-time promotions etc.
  • Loyalty – Provide exclusive perks, insider content, VIP treatment

This lifecycle approach maximizes relevance while automatically advancing subscribers towards conversion.

Triggered/behavioral emails

Triggered emails are automated messages sent when subscribers take (or don’t take) specified actions. They encourage behaviors like:

  • Abandoned cart/browse recovery – Emails after a period of product browsing inactivity offering incentives to complete the purchase
  • Post-purchase follow-ups – Send satisfaction surveys, related product recommendations etc.
  • Inactive subscriber re-engagement – Offer promotions after a period of email inactivity
  • New lead nurturing – Send a series over time to warm up cold prospects
  • Event invites – Remind subscribers to register as the date approaches

The right mix of action-based triggers and value-add content boosts engagement exponentially.


Email integrates seamlessly with other channels like your:

  • CRM – Sync subscriber data across sales, service, marketing etc.
  • Landing pages – Capture more email leads from gated content
  • Help desk – Improve support resolution rates
  • Ecommerce platform – Lifecycle and behavioral campaigns based on purchase behaviors
  • Web analytics – Connect on-site and email engagement for one customer view

This holistic approach allows more sophisticated automation and personalization leveraging data from every subscriber touchpoint.

Testing and optimization

The only way to perfect email campaigns is relentless testing and optimization including:

A/B testing

This split-tests campaign components like subject lines, content sections, CTAs etc. on a portion of your list to improve open rates, clicks, and conversions.

Multivariate testing

Testing multiple campaign variables simultaneously to identify optimal combinations that outperform individually.

Email rendering

Testing display across all major email clients and devices to maximize visibility and engagement.

Timing tests

Analyze performance by day and time to determine the optimal sending cadence.

Subject line optimization

Compare subject line length, curiosity triggers like “X ways to…” and urgency cues like “Last chance” to boost opens.

Image A/B tests

Swap image locations, subjects, text overlays etc. to increase visual engagement.

Mobile optimization

Test “mobile-first” minimalist design vs. converting desktop creative on mobile clients.

Constant testing uncovers impactful optimization opportunities and ensures you never stop improving.

These advanced strategies represent the future of sophisticated email marketing. Integrating them will supercharge your subscriber engagement, revenue, and results as we forge ahead.

The terminology might seem complex now, but will soon become second nature. You’ve got this!


We’ve covered a ton of ground exploring essential and advanced email marketing terminology. From infrastructure terms like IP addresses and spam filters to strategic concepts like lifecycle campaigns and multivariate testing, having all this knowledge at your fingertips is invaluable.

Let’s recap some key takeaways:

  • Mastering terminology allows you to interpret analytics, troubleshoot issues, and make informed decisions confidently.
  • Keeping bounce rates low, authentication updated, engagement high, and complaints minimal ensures optimal deliverability.
  • Careful list building through double opt-ins and vigilant list hygiene provides a healthy subscriber foundation.
  • Personalization and segmentation boost relevancy and open rates by tailoring content to subscriber interests.
  • Lifecycle and triggered approaches nurture subscribers automatically by sending timed, relevant content.
  • Testing and optimizing components like subject lines, design, timing, and CTAs will continually improve performance.

And much more! With so many moving parts, email marketing definitely has a steep learning curve. But you’re now equipped with all the vocabulary and concepts needed to operate like a pro.

As a next step, start putting your knowledge into practice:

  • Review your email analytics reports with fresh eyes, spotting areas for optimization.
  • Apply advanced segmentation and lifecycle concepts to make your campaigns hyper-targeted.
  • Beef up your authentication protocols and monitor your sender reputation closely.
  • Test innovative new personalization elements like dynamic content to boost engagement.

Don’t be afraid to experiment! The world of email marketing never stands still. Continually challenging yourself to try new strategies will ensure you stay ahead of the curve.

If any terminology ever comes up that stumps you, just refer back to this guide for a quick refresher. With the language of email marketing now firmly under your belt, you have all the tools needed to thrive.

The journey to inbox domination awaits. Wishing you huge success as you flex your newfound skills and experience the joy of reaching, engaging, and converting more subscribers than ever before!


After exploring essential email marketing terminology, advanced strategies, deliverability concepts, and more, let’s recap the core lessons to remember:

  • Mastering email marketing vocabulary allows you to communicate effectively, interpret data accurately, troubleshoot issues, and make informed decisions.
  • Key delivery and infrastructure terms explain how emails physically reach inboxes, where problems can arise, and how to optimize for success.
  • Design elements like compelling subject lines, concise preheaders, and clear CTAs are crucial for engagement and conversions.
  • Understanding different campaign types and objectives enables you to choose the right strategy to achieve specific goals.
  • Monitoring core metrics and terminology uncovers opportunities to continuously improve performance.
  • Following email regulations and compliance ensures deliverability and avoids potential legal issues.
  • Robust list building through double opt-ins and diligent maintenance establishes a strong subscriber foundation.
  • Advanced personalization, segmentation, lifecycle messaging, and innovative triggers take engagement to the next level.
  • Ongoing testing and optimizing campaign components leads to incremental but impactful gains.
  • Awareness of emerging trends keeps veteran email marketers strategically ahead of the curve.

With this complete email marketing glossary at your fingertips, you can now navigate any discussion, report, or strategy with confidence. Put these lessons into practice and prepare to reach new heights of inbox success!

Frequently Asked Questions

Q: What is the difference between a hard bounce and a soft bounce?

A hard bounce occurs when an email address is invalid or an account no longer exists, resulting in a permanent delivery failure. A soft bounce is temporary, often due to a full inbox or unavailable server.

Q: How low should my email bounce rate be?

Aim for a bounce rate under 5%. Anything higher can signal list hygiene issues or deliverability problems. Monitor your bounce rate closely.

Q: What is a good unique open rate?

Unique open rates vary widely by industry and audience. For reference, the cross-industry average is around 20-25%. Focus more on click and conversion rates.

Q: What is more important – open rate or clickthrough rate?

Clickthrough and conversion rates are better indicators of engagement than open rates alone. An email could be opened but ignored, while clicks demonstrate real interest.

Q: What is the difference between a shared IP and dedicated IP?

A shared IP is used by multiple senders to save costs, while a dedicated IP is exclusive to your account for greater branding control and deliverability.

Q: How often should I send emails to avoid being marked as spam?

It depends on your audience, but 1-3 emails per week is fairly standard. Test different frequencies and monitor complaints, bounces, and unsubs to find the right balance.

Q: What is an acceptable spam complaint rate?

Aim for less than 0.1% of subscribers marking your emails as spam. Anything higher can get you blacklisted by ISPs.

Q: What is a double opt-in and why is it important?

Double opt-in requires new subscribers to confirm signups via email before being added. This ensures valid addresses and engaged recipients.

Q: How can I optimize my emails for mobile?

Use responsive design, large text, minimal imagery, single-column layouts, and CTAs sized for fingertips. Test across different mobile devices.